Monday, 25 July 2011

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Jaipong Dance

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Jaipongan is the art of dance that was born from the creativity of an artist from Bandung, Gugum Gumbira. It was inspired by the pop art, one of them is Tapak Tilu, he became know and recognize the pattern of step of Kliningan or Bajidoran or Ketuk Tilu dance. Until he can develop a dance or art which is now in the know with the name Jaipongan.

His first Jaipong creation has known by people are “Daun Pulus Keser Bojong” and “Rendeng Bojong”, both of tahem are kind of women dance and couple dance. Firstly, this dance considered as an erotic and vulgar dance, but the longer, this dance being more popular and began to increase the frequency of the show both in television and celebration which organized by Government or private parties.

From this Jaipong creation nascent some professional dancer such as Tati Saleh, Yeti Mamat, Eli Somali, dan Pepen Dedi Kirniadi. The presence of Jaipongan dance has contributed greatly to the lovers dance more active to discover types of folk dances that were previously lacking in the notice. With the advent of this Jaipongan dance, now many people make Jaipongan dance courses and frequently used by employers to decoy invited guests.

In Subang Jaipongan style "Kaleran" has a characteristic that is fun,erotic, humorous, excitement, spontaneity, and simplicity. This was reflected in the pattern of presentation of dance on the show, there is a given pattern (Ibing pattern) as in art Jaipongan in Bandung, also dances that are not patterned (Ibing Saka), for example in art Jaipongan Subang and Karawang. Thia term can be found in Jaipongan Kaleran style, especially in the area of Subang.

Jaipongan dance at this point can be called as one of the typical dance of West Java, looks at the important events the arrival of guests from foreign countries who came to West Java, are always welcomed with Jaipongan dance performances. Jaipongan dance this much influence on other arts that exist inWest Java, both on the art of wayang, gamelan, and other Genjring who has even collaborated with Modern Dangdut by Mr, Nur and Leni to become Pong-Dut.

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Sunday, 24 July 2011

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Biography of Alan G. MacDiarmid

Alan MacDiarmid, co-discoverer of the field of conducting polymers, more commonly known as “synthetic metals,” was the chemist responsible in 1977 for the chemical and electrochemical doping of polyacetylene, (CH)x, the “prototype” conducting polymer, and the “rediscovery” of polyaniline, now the foremost industrial conducting polymer. Alan G. MacDiarmid shared a Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Dr. Alan J. Heeger and Dr. Hideki Shirakawa.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the prize to the three for the discovery and development of conductive polymers. Alan G. MacDiarmid (born April 14, 1927; mother, Ruby and father, Archibald MacDiarmid ) grew up in New Zealand, and received his Ph.D. at University of Wisconsin 1953 and at University of Cambridge, UK, 1955. He was associate professor at University of Pennsylvania 1956 and received a professorship there 1964. Since 1988 he is Blanchard Professor of Chemistry.

In 1973, he began research on (SN)x, an unusual polymeric material with metallic conductivity. His interest in organic conducting polymers began in 1975 when he was introduced to a new form of polyacetylene by Dr. Hideki Shirakawa at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. The ensuing collaboration between MacDiarmid, Shirakawa and Alan Heeger (then at the Department of Physics at the University of Pennsylvania) led to the historic discovery of metallic conductivity in an organic polymer.

MacDiarmid recalled that he invited Shirakawa to Penn to study polymers after they met over a cup of green tea at a conference at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, where MacDiarmid was giving a lecture. When MacDiarmid-who noted that he likes “pretty things”-showed Shirakawa a “golden-colored” polymer made of silver nitride, Shirakawa showed him a “beautiful silvery polymer” made of polyacetylene. “I said, ‘If I can get some money, could you come and join me for a year at Penn?’” MacDiarmid said.

“And he said ‘Yes.’” While at Penn, they soon found that Shirakawa’s silvery polymer “showed some conductivity, not very high, but this elemental analysis also showed that there was impurity in it. So we said, ‘Well, obviously, you make it more pure, you get a higher conductivity.’” But, MacDiarmid noted, Shirakawa found that “the purer he got it, the more the conductivity decreased instead of increasing.” They then added iodine, which removed some of the tightly packed electrons, “and suddenly the conductivity increased within a few seconds to millions and billions of times higher than what it was before.”

MacDiarmid and Heeger enjoyed a “very, very crucial and successful collaboration for about 10 years,” MacDiarmid recalled. “We would arrange to get together every Saturday morning-we strictly said not to discuss anything specific; purely to sit down and let our minds wander and consider crazy things, which we did.” From his point of view, MacDiarmid said, the “whole climate of Penn is really just great” for research, and its interdisciplinary strengths are complemented by the quality of its students. “We all know that the research done in a given research group cannot be better than the students-undergraduate, graduate or post-doctoral,” he said. “If you have very good people working-not for you but with you, then the chances of finding very important, critical, unexpected things are pretty high.”

This initial discovery and ensuing studies, in collaboration with Shirakawa, resulted in the first chemical doping of (CH)x and detailed physics studies with Heeger. That an organic polymer could be readily doped to the metallic regime introduced a phenomenon, completely new and unexpected to both the chemistry and physics communities.

This unleashed a flood-gate of research world-wide in chemistry and physics concerning interrelationships between the chemistry, structure and electronic properties of semiconducting and metallic organic polymers which has continued to expand unabatedly to this day.

Technological opportunities for application of these materials in such diverse areas as rechargeable batteries, electromagnetic interference shielding, antistatic dissipation, stealth applications, corrosion inhibition, flexible “plastic” transistors and electrodes, electroluminescent polymer displays, to name but a few, continue to be actively pursued.

MacDiarmid’s current scientific interests are centered around the most technologically important conducting polymer, polyaniline, and its oligomers with special interest in those isomeric forms which might contribute to the greatest degree in promoting high conductivity and enhanced mechanical properties in polyaniline. He is also actively involved in the study of aniline oligomers in reversible sensors for volatile organic compounds down to a few ppm. His studies on light-emitting organic polymers involve investigation of the new phenomenon in which traces of ionic species in the emissive layer greatly enhance selected desirable characteristics.

During the past 20 years he has been involved exclusively with conducting polymers, particularly the synthesis, chemistry, doping, electrochemistry, conductivity, magnetic and optical properties and processing of polyacetylene and polyaniline. He is the author/co-author of approximately 600 research papers and 20 patents. He is the recipient of numerous awards and honorary degrees both nationally internationally. Most recently, he was named recipient of the 1999 American Chemical Society Award in Materials Chemistry.

Alan G. MacDiarmid shared a Nobel Prize in Chemistry with former Penn physics professor Dr. Alan J. Heeger (now at the University of California-Santa Barbara) and Dr. Hideki Shirakawa of the University of Tsukuba, Japan. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the prize to the three for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.

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Biography of Al-Farghani

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Abu’l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani, born in Farghana, Transoxiana, was one of the most distinguished astronomers in the service of al-Mamun and his successors. He wrote "Elements ofAstronomy" (Kitab fi al-Harakat al-Samawiya wa Jawami Ilm al-Nujum i.e.the book on celestial motion and thorough science of the stars), which was translated into Latin in the 12th century and exerted great influence upon European astronomy before Regiomontanus. He accepted Ptolemy’s theory and value of the precession, but thought that it affected not only the stars but also the planets. He determined the diameter of the earth to be 6,500 miles, and found the greatest distances and also the diameters of the planets.

Al-Farghani’s activities extended to engineering. According to Ibn Tughri Birdi, he supervised the construction of the Great Nilometer at al-Fustat (old Cairo). It was completed in 861, the year in which the Caliph al-Mutawakkil, who ordered the construction, died. But engineering was not al-Farghani’s forte, as transpires from the following story narrated by Ibn Abi Usaybi’a.

Al-Mutawakkil had entrusted the two sons of Musa ibn Shakir, Muhammad and Ahmad, with supervising the digging of a canal named al-Ja’fari. They delegated the work to Al-Farghani, thus deliberately ignoring a better engineer, Sind ibn Ali, whom, out of professionaljealousy, they had caused to be sent to Baghdad, away from al-Mutawakkil’s court in Samarra. The canal was to run through the new city, al-Ja’fariyya, which al-Mutawakkil had built near Samarra on the Tigris and named after himself. Al-Farghani committed a grave error, making the beginning of the canal deeper than the rest, so that not enough water would run through the length of the canal except when the Tigris was high. News of this angered the Caliph, and the two brothers were saved from severe punishment only by the gracious willingness of Sind ibn Ali to vouch for the correctness of al-Farghani’s calculations, thus risking his own welfare and possibly his life. As had been correctly predicted by astrologers, however, al-Mutawakkil was murdered shortly before the error became apparent. The explanation given for Al-Farghani’s mistake is that being a theoretician rather than a practical engineer, he never successfully completed a construction.

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Biography of Adolf Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe

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German chemist, generally regarded as the founder of modern organic chemistry with his synthesis of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) – an organiccompound – from inorganic starting materials. He was first to applyelectrolysis to organic synthesis. Kolbe electrolysis of fatty (alkanoic) acids was the first known electrochemical synthesis.

Kolbe was a German chemist. He was born near Gottingen and educated there. Kolbe studied for three years (1838-42) with Friedrich Wohler, and then served as an assistant of Robert Wilhelm Bunsen at the University of Marburg in 1842. After one year in Marburg, Kolbe obtained his PhD for work originally begun under Wohler’s direction. Kolbe remained as Bunsen’s assistant for a total of three years (1842-45).

He spent 2 years (1845-46) at the London School of Mines, England, being an assistant to Lyon Playfair. From 1847 to 1851 Kolbe was engaged in editing the Handworterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie (Dictionary of Pure and Applied Chemistry) written by Justus von Liebig and Wohler. In 1851 he was appointed professor at Marburg succeeding Bunsen; by 1865 he had moved to the University of Leipzig and had begun to set up the largest and best-equipped laboratory of the time. As editor of the Journal fur praktische Chemie (Journal of Practical Chemistry, 1869), he was sometimes severely critical of the work of others.

At that time, it was beliefed that organic and inorganic compounds are independent from each other, and that organic compounds could only be created by living organisms. Kolbe believed that organic compoundscould be derived from inorganic ones, directly or indirectly, by substitution processes.

He validated his theory by converting carbon disulfide (considered as an inorganic material), in several steps, to acetic acid (typical organiccompound) (1843-45). Thus, he was the first to synthesize of an organiccompound from inorganic maretial. Previously organic chemistry had been devoted to compounds that occur only in living organisms.

Introducing a modified idea of structural radicals he contributed to the establishment of structural theory. He was a pioneer in the development of structural formulas for organic compounds; introduced the term “synthesis” into chemical usage; discovered trichloromethanesulfonic acid and nitromethane; predicted existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols; synthesized taurine, malonic acid, and potassium formate; determined the composition of lactic acid, alanine, and glycocol. With Sir Edward Frankland he found that nitriles can be hydrolyzed to the corresponding acids.

Kolbe synthesized salicylic acid and showed its value as a preservative. The process was named Kolbe synthesis (or Kolbe-Schmitt reaction), which works by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125°C), then treating it with sulfuric acid:

Kolbe Electrolysis:

His most important work was on the electrolysis of the fatty (alkanoic) acids. He was first to apply electrolysis to organic synthesis and showed that electrolysis of carboxylic acids effects decarboxylation; identified carbonyl as a functional group. During the reaction CO2 is cleaved off. The alkyl radicals dimerize to symmetric compounds

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Biography of Abul Wafa Muhammad Al-Buzjani

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Abul Wafa Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn Ismail al-Buzjani was born in Buzjan, Nishapur in 940 C.E. He flourished as a great mathematician and astronomer at Baghdad and died in 997/998 C.E. He learnt mathematics in Baghdad. In 959 C.E. he migrated to Iraq and lived there till his death.
Abul Wafa’s main contribution lies in several branches of mathematics, especially geometry and trigonometry. In geometry his contribution comprises solution of geometrical problems with opening of the compass; construction of a square equivalent to other squares; regular polyhedra; construction of regular hectagon taking for its side half the side of the equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle; constructions of parabola by points and geometrical solution of the equations: x4 = a and x4 + ax3 = b
Abul Wafa’s contribution to the development of trigonometry was extensive. He was the first to show the generality of the sine theorem relative to spherical triangles. He developed a new method of constructing sine tables, the value of sin 30′ being correct to the eighth decimal place. He also developed relations for sine (a+b) and the formula:
2 sin2 (a/2) = 1 – cos a , and sin a = 2 sin (a/2) cos (a/2)
In addition, he made a special study of the tangent and calculated a table of tangents. He introduced the secant and cosecant for the first time, knew the relations between the trigonometric lines, which are now used to define them, and undertook extensive studies on conics.

Apart from being a mathematician, Abul Wafa also contributed to astronomy. In this field he discussed different movernents of the moon, and discovered ‘variation’. He was also one of the last Arabic translators and commentators of Greek works.

He wrote a large number of books on mathematics and other subjects, most of which have been lost or exist in modified forms. His contribution includes Kitab ‘Ilm al-Hisab, a practical book of arithmetic, al-Kitab al-Kamil (the Complete Book), Kitab al-Handsa (Applied Geometry). Apart from this, he wrote rich commentaries on Euclid, Diophantos and al-Khawarizmi, but all of these have been lost. His books now extant include Kitab ‘Ilm al-Hisab, Kitab al- Handsa and Kitab al-Kamil.

His astronomical knowledge on the movements of the moon has been criticized in that, in the case of ‘variation’ the third inequality of the moon as he discussed was the second part of the ‘evection’. But, according to Sedat, what he discovered was the same that was discovered by Tycho Brache six centuries later. Nonetheless, his contribution to trigonometry was extremely significant in that he developed the knowledge on the tangent and introduced the secant and cosecant for the first time; in fact a sizeable part of today’s trigonometry can be traced back to him.


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Biography of Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masu’di

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Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Husain Ibn Ali Al-Masu’di was a descendant of Abdallah Ibn Masu’d, a companion of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). An expert geographer, a physicist and historian, Masu’di was born in the last decade of the 9th century C.E., his exact date of birth being unknown. He was a Mutazilite Arab, who explored distant lands and died at Cairo, in 957 C.E.

He travelled to Fars in 915 C.E. and, after staying for one year in Istikhar, he proceeded via Baghdad to India, where he visited Multan and Mansoora before returning to Fars. From there he traveled to Kirman and then again to India. Mansoora in those days was a city of great renown and was the capital of the Muslim state of Sind. Around it, there were many settlements/townships of new converts to Islam. In 918 C.E., Masu’di traveled to Gujrat, where more than 10,000 Arab Muslims had settled in the sea-port of Chamoor. He also travelled to Deccan, Ceylon, Indo-China and China, and proceeded via Madagascar, Zanjibar and Oman to Basra.

At Basra he completed his book Muruj-al-Thahab, in which he has described in a most absorbing manner his experience of various countries, peoples and climates. He gives accounts of his personalcontacts with the Jews, Iranians, Indians and Christians. From Basra he moved to Syria and from there to Cairo, where he wrote his second extensive book Muruj al-Zaman in thirty volumes. In this book he has described in detail the geography and history of the countries that he had visited. His first book was completed in 947 C.E. He also prepared a supplement, called Kitab al-Ausat, in which he has compiled historical events chronologically. In 957 C.E., the year of his death, he completed his last book Kitab al-Tanbih wa al-Ishraf, in which he has given a summary of his earlier book as well as an errata.

Masu’di is referred to as the Herodotus and Pliny of the Arabs. By presenting a critical account of historical events, he initiated a change in the art of historical writing, introducing the elements of analysis, reflection and criticism, which was later on further improved by Ibn Khaldun In particular, in al-Tanbeeh he makes a systematic study ofhistory against a perspective of geography, sociology, anthropology and ecology. Masu’di had a deep insight into the causes of rise and fall of nations.

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Saturday, 23 July 2011

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Biography of Abu Marwan IBN Zuhr

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Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr was born at Seville in 1091/c. 1094 C.E.

After completing his education and specializing in medicine, he entered the service of Almoravides (Al-Murabatun), but after their defeat by the Al-Mohades (Al-Muwahadun), he served under ‘Abd al-Mu’min, the first Muwahid ruler. He died in Seville in 1161/c. 1162 C.E. As confirmed by George Sarton, he was not a Jew, but an orthodox Muslim.

Ibn Zuhr was one of the greatest physicians and clinicians of the Muslim golden era and has rather been held by some historians of science as the greatest of them. Contrary to the general practice of the Muslim scholars of that era, he confined his work to only one field medicine. This enabled him to produce works of everlasting fame.

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Biography of Abu Ali Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham

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Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham was one of the most eminent physicists,

whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods are outstanding. Known in the West as Alhazen, Ibn al-Haitham was born in 965 C.E. in Basrah, and was educated in Basrah and Baghdad. Thereafter, he went to Egypt, where he was asked to find ways of controlling the flood of the Nile. Being unsuccessful in this, he feigned madness until the death of Caliph al-Hakim. He also travelled to Spain and, during this period, he had ample time for his scientific pursuits, which included optics, mathematics, physics, medicine and development of scientific methods on each of which he has left several outstanding books.

He made a thorough examination of the passage of light through various media and discovered the laws of refraction. He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours. His book Kitab-al-Manadhir was translated into Latin in the Middle Ages, as also his book dealing with the colours of sunset. He dealt at length with the theory of various physical phenomena like shadows, eclipses, the rainbow, and speculated on the physical nature of light. He is the first to describe accurately the various parts of the eye and give a scientific explanation of the process of vision. He also attempted to explain binocular vision, and gave a correct explanation of the apparent increase in size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon. He is known for the earliest use of the camera obscura. He contradicted Ptolemy’s and Euclid’s theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of light emanating from the eyes; according to him the rays originate in the object of vision and not in the eye. Through these extensive researches on optics, he has been considered as the father of modern Optics.

The Latin translation of his main work, Kitab-al-Manadhir, exerted a great influence upon Western science e.g. on the work of Roger Bacon and Kepler. It brought about a great progress in experimental methods. His research in catoptrics centered on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration. He made the important observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant and investigated the magnifying power of a lens. His catoptrics contain the important problem known as Alhazen’s problem. It comprises drawing lines from two points in the plane of a circle meeting at a point on the circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point. This leads to an equation of the fourth degree.

In his book Mizan al-Hikmah Ibn al-Haitham has discussed the density of the atmosphere and developed a relation between it and the height. He also studied atmospheric refraction. He discovered that the twilight only ceases or begins when the sun is 19° below the horizon and attempted to measure the height of the atmosphere on that basis. He has also discussed the theories of attraction between masses, and it seems that he was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity.

His contribution to mathematics and physics was extensive. Inmathematics, he developed analytical geometry by establishing linkage between algebra and geometry. He studied the mechanics of motion of a body and was the first to maintain that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion. This would seem equivalent to the first law of motion.

The list of his books runs to 200 or so, very few of which have survived. Even his monumental treatise on optics survived through its Latin translation. During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin, Hebrew and other languages. He has also written on the subject of evolution a book that deserves serious attention even today.

In his writing, one can see a clear development of the scientific methods as developed and applied by the Muslims and comprising the systematic observation of physical phenomena and their linking together into a scientific theory. This was a major breakthrough in scientific methodology, as distinct from guess and gesture, and placed scientific pursuits on a sound foundation comprising systematic relationship between observation, hypothesis and verification.

Ibn al-Haitham’s influence on physical sciences in general, and optics in particular, has been held in high esteem and, in fact, it ushered in a new era in optical research, both in theory and practice.


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Biography of Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi

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Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahravi (known in the west as Abulcasis) was born in 936 C.E. in Zahra in the neighbourhood ofCordova. He became one of the most renowned surgeons of the era and was physician to King Al-Hakam-II of Spain. After a long medical career, rich with significant original contribution, he died in 1013 C.E.

He is best known for his early and original breakthroughs in surgery as well as for his famous Medical Encyclopedia called Al-Tasrif, which is composed of thirty volumes covering different aspects of medical science. The more important part of this series comprises three books on surgery, which describe in detail

of surgical treatment as based on the operations performed by him, including cauterization, removal of stone from the bladder, dissection of animals, midwifery, styptics, and surgery of eye, ear and throat. He perfected several delicate operations, including removal of the dead foetus and amputation.

Al-Tasrif was first translated by Gherard of Cremona into Latin in the Middle Ages. It was followed by several other editors in Europe. The book contains numerous diagrams and illustrations of surgical instruments, in use or developed by him, and comprised a part of the medical curriculum in European countries for many centuries. Contrary to the view that the Muslims fought shy of surgery, Al-Zahravi’s Al-Tasrif provided a monumental collection for this branch of applied science.

Al-Zahravi was the inventor of several surgical instruments, of which three are notable: (i) an instrument for internal examination of the ear, (ii) an instrument for internal inspection of the urethra, and (iii) and instrument for applying or removing foreign bodies from the throat. He specialized in curing disease by cauterization and applied the technique to as many as 50 different operations.

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Biography of Abu Al-Nasr Al-Farabi

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Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi was born in a small village Wasij, near Farab in Turkistan in 259 A.H. (870 C.E.). His parents were originally of Persian descent, but his ancestors had migrated to Turkistan. Known as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the son of a general. He completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, later on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time viz., from 901 C.E. to 942 C.E. During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of knowledge and technology. He lived through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs. As a philosopher and scientist, he acquired great proficiency in various branches of learning and is reported to have been an expert in different languages.

Farabi travelled to many distant lands and studied for some time in Damascus and Egypt, but repeatedly came back to Baghdad, until he visited Saif al-Daula’s court in Halab (Allepo). He became one of the constant companions of the King, and it was here at Halab that his fame spread far and wide. During his early years he was a Qadi (Judge), but later on the took up teaching as his profession. During the course of his career, he had suffered great hardships and at one time was the caretaker of a garden. He died a bachelor in Damascus in 339 A.H./950 C.E. at the age of 80 years.

Farabi contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music. His major contributions seem to be in philosophy, logic and sociology and, of course, stands out as an Encyclopedist. As a philosopher, he may be classed as a Neoplatonist who tried to synthesize Platonism and Aristotelism with theology and he wrote such rich commentaries on Aristotle’s physics, meteorology, logic, etc., in addition to a large number of books on several other subjects embodying his original contribution, that he came to be known as the ‘Second Teacher’ (al-Mou’allim al-Thani) Aristotle being the First. One of the important contributions of Farabi was to make the study of logic more easy by dividing it into two categories viz., Takhayyul (idea) and Thubut (proof).

In sociology he wrote several books out of which Ara Ahl al-Madina al-Fadila became famous. His books on psychology and metaphysics were largely based on his own work. He also wrote a book on music, captioned Kitab al-Musiqa. He was a great expert in the art and science of music and invented several musical instruments, besides contributing to the knowledge of musical notes. It has been reported that he could play his instrument so well as to make people laugh or weep at will. In physics he demonstrated the existence of void.

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